信号词：基本因果关系词(due to, because of……), depend on, 和...有关(be associated with), 对...有影响(influence, effect, impact),determine，decide。
例题：剑11 T2 P3
In the second paragraph, the writer refers to a shape-matching test in order to illustrate
A. the subjective nature of art appreciation
B. the reliance of modern art on abstract forms.
C. our tendency to be influenced by the opinions of others.
D. a common problem encountered when processing visual data.
原文：Could the same approach also shed light on abstract twentieth-century pieces, from Mondrian's geometrical blocks of colour, to Pollock's seemingly haphazard arrangements of splashed paint on canvas? Sceptics believe that people claim to like such works simply because they are famous. We certainly do have an inclination to follow the crowd. When asked to make simple perceptual decisions such as matching a shape to its rotated image, for example, people often choose a definitively wrong answer if they see others doing the same. It is easy to imagine that this mentality would have even more impact on a fuzzy concept like art appreciation, where there is no right or wrong answer.
首先分析四个选项，标出各自逻辑关系，会发现C选项的influence正是我们要找的因果关系词，定位到答案句，发现最后一句正是对题目当中shape-matching test的总结，很快发现句中的impact on逻辑关系与之对应，继续寻找其他替换，opinion被concept替换，句意正好与C选项符合，故正确答案为C，此时还可以利用排除法将其他三个选项排出，均未提及。
信号词：not, 否定前缀，lack, prevent, little等等。
例题：剑6 T4 P3
The writer thinks that the declaration“There is no bullying at this school”
A. is no longer true in many schools
B. was not in fact made by many schools
C. reflected the school’s lack of concern
D. reflected a lack of knowledge and resources
原文C段：Until recently, not much was known about the topic, and little help was available to teachers to deal with bullying. Perhaps as a consequence, schools would often deny the problem. “There is no bullying at this school” has been a common refrain, almost certainly untrue.
此题分析选项后发现，四个选项均为否定关系，那么只需要找到答案句当中所有的否定关系，一一排除即可。首先发现第一句的”not much was known”和“little help”为否定，第二句的”untrue”为否定，接着比对选项，寻找同义替换，A似乎可以替换untrue,但no longer 暗含“不再”，具有绝对语气，故排除A;B虽然是否定，但从理解的角度来看，与原文意思冲突，故排除;C和D均表示缺少的概念，但并未提到缺少关心，注意不要主观推断，故正确答案为D，known替换knowledge, help替换resources。
信号词：比较级，最高级，rather than, prefer to, similar, unlike等等
例题：剑10 T2 P3
The writer says that unlike other forms of art, a painting does not
A. involve direct contact with an audience.
B. require a specific location for a performance.
C. need the involvement of other professionals.
D. have a specific beginning or end.
原文：A fundamental difference between paintings and other art forms is that there is no prescribed time over which a painting is viewed. By contrast, the audience encounters an opera or a play over a specific time, which is the duration of the performance. Similarly, novels and poems are read in a prescribed temporal sequence, whereas a picture has no clear place at which to start viewings or at which to finish. Thus art works themselves encourage us to view them superficially, without appreciating the richness of detail and labour that is involved.
此题重点在审题，其中暗含了两个逻辑关系，比较“unlike”和否定“not”，此时回到答案句，只需要找出有比较关系和否定关系的句子，很快就会发现，以“similarly”开头的一句话，正是此题的答案，经过替换，可以发现，正确答案为D，“beginning or end”替换”start，end“。