1、举例子/Giving examples：For example, For instance, Namely
常用的就是for example和for instance, namely 用在解释或者说出什么事物的名称中，表达“也就是说”、“换言之就是”的意思。作插入语多。
举个例子：There are two problems: namely , the expense and the time.
And ，In addition ，As well as ，Also ，Too， furthermore， Moreover ，Apart from ，In addition to ，Besides
and的用法：当然是用在两者之间。We discussed training, education and the budget.
举个例子：We also spoke about marketing.
You can use also with not only to give emphasis.
We are concerned not only by the costs, but also by the competition.
如果你希望在句首表达”also”，就可以用 In addition, or In addition to this…
As well as 用法：可以用于句首或者中间。
举个例子：As well as the costs, we are concerned by the competition.
We are interested in costs as well as the competition.
Too goes either at the end of the sentence, or after the subject and means as well .
Apart from 和 besides的用法： 它们都常用于表达as well as , or in addition to类似的意思。
举个例子：Apart from Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer.
Besides Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer.
Moreover 和 furthermore的用法：为你要表达的事物增加另一个信息点。
举个例子：Marketing plans give us an idea of the potential market. Moreover , they tell us about the competition .
3.总结信息/Summarising：In short, In brief, In summary, To summarize, In a nutshell, To conclude, In conclusion ，我们经常用这些词汇在写作和口语中表示总结。注意：In a nutshell是非正式表达，经常用于口语而非写作。
4. 强化观点间联系/ Sequencing ideas ：The former, … the latter, Firstly, secondly, finally. The first point is, Lastly, The following
举个例子：Marketing and finance are both covered in the course. The former is studied in the first term and the latter is studied in the final term.
Firstly, … secondly, … finally (or lastly ) 在陈列信息时很有用;
举个例子：The following people have been chosen to go on the training course: N Peters, C Jones and A Owen.
5. 给出结果时/Giving a result ：Therefore, Consequently, As a result ,
举个例子：The companies are expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result , they are taking on extra staff.
6. 表示比较、转折、让步等时：Contrasting ideas :But, However, although / even, though Unlike, In theory… in, practice…, Nonetheless, While, Whereas, Despite / despite the fact that, In spite of / in spite of the fact that, Nevertheless
举例子：He works hard, but he doesn't earn much.
He works hard. However , he doesn't earn much
While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown.
Taxes have gone up, whereas social security contributions have gone down.
Unlike in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol.
While , whereas and unlike 用于表达两件事物很不同时。
Although , despite and in spite of 的用法：用了这些词，你就把一个完整的句子分两半了。多用于让步。
例如：Although it was cold, she went out in shorts.
In spite of the cold, she went out in shorts.
Nevertheless and nonetheless 的用法：其实就是 in spite of that or anyway的意思 .建议要7分的同学试着用。
例如：The sea was cold, but he went swimming nevertheless . (In spite of the fact that it was cold.)
The company is doing well. Nonetheless , they aren't going to expand this year.